10 Principles for AMQP

created: 1241352409|%e %B %Y, %H:%M
TAGS: amqp community sermon

Ten ways that AMQP can be made simpler, more backwards compatible, more interesting, and overall more enjoyable and successful for all who work on it and use it.


The more you know about something, the harder it is to build it.

We went live with the first production deployment of AMQP (on OpenAMQ) at the end of 2006, handling about half a billion messages a day. It was a massive project: design a new protocol, build an industrial-strength implementation, and migrate a major application onto this new infrastructure. Two and a half years sounds a lot but in that time we made three complete redesigns of AMQP, and OpenAMQ, before we had designs that were simple enough to work reliably, and still do what was needed. Functional simplicity is the hardest aspect of design.

It's been hard to translate that success into a final AMQP specification. Part of the problem was failure to agree on what "final" meant. Part of the problem is that AMQP addresses a large problem that cannot be solved quickly. Part of the problem is that the people working on AMQP - including myself - were still building the tools and experience needed.

AMQP will not, in my opinion, be solved in one or two steps, nor in one or two years. The work that has been done already over four years is very important. It has already created a healthy market of competing, interoperable, messaging products. The AMQP/0.9.1 specification, which was published last year, raises the bar: it is lean, precise, coherent, and tested.

But AMQP/0.9.1 is not the final destination. As a contract of interoperability and stability, it's excellent, almost perfect. But it has a limited view of the problem, and it is still more complex than it should be.

The thing about infrastructure is that once it is in place, it is horribly expensive to fix. The complexity in AMQP/0.9.1, if not solved, will be multiplied many times when AMQP expands to cover the fully-reliable messaging, low latency, multicast, and other features we expect to see in AMQP/1.0.

Complexity is easy, simplicity is hard. My day job is to design simplicity by identifying and removing complexity. In this article I'll do that to AMQP, and identify ten areas where there is unnecessary, and in the long term dangerous, complexity, and in each case I'll provide recommendations for solving that complexity.

My ten principles for AMQP are:

  1. Make small pieces: AMQP should be a fabric of protocols, not one large protocol.
  2. A layered architecture: these protocols should form a clearly layered architecture.
  3. Delegate the design work: each protocol is a job for a small, competent team.
  4. Leverage the community: open the design process to anyone who wants to participate.
  5. Leverage competition: allow competing teams to make competing designs, at any level.
  6. Leverage the market: use adoption, over time, to identify which designs are best.
  7. Use natural syntax: the framing at each level should fit the needs of that level.
  8. Use natural semantics: the interactions between peers at each level should be simple.
  9. Push blame to the edges: brokers should never compensate for poorly-written applications.
  10. Deconstruct the broker: the architecture should support zero, one, or more brokers.

Since theory without practice is useless, the RestMS project acts as a demonstrator of most of these principles.

Make small pieces

AMQP is on paper a single protocol1. This makes it easier to market. It makes it much harder to improve, and the 0-10 specification shows this: it's 197 pages, compared to about 40 for AMQP/0.9.1. I've recommended since 2006 that we refactor AMQP into smaller pieces, each solvable by a small team of 1-3 people. For example, separate protocols for version negotiation, for control commands, for message transfer, for transactions. These pieces need freedom to evolve independently, so that experimentation can be cleanly (contractually) separated from standardization.

A layered architecture

AMQP has no clearly layered architecture. The refactoring of AMQP into small protocols must be based around a solid, coherent, layered architecture. This should be the core of what AMQP 'is', the fundamental agreement around which detailed designs can be built. The architecture should specify what each layer does, in terms of its interactions or interfaces with higher and lower layers. The goal of the architecture is to compartementalize innovation, to guarantee space for contributions, and to ensure the overall coherence of AMQP. The layered architecture is what defines the major version of the protocol.

Delegate the design work

AMQP is specified by a tiny, exclusve team. When a complex problem is broken into pieces, shaped by a clear architecture, it becomes possible for teams to work independently and asynchronously, on different pieces. This is the only way to solve large problems: break them down and let people specialize in different areas. The AMQP process is today a technical process. It should become an administrative one, defining frameworks for collaboration, and approving specifications when they emerge and have been proved.

Leverage the community

The AMQP process excludes expert user contributors. Given that messaging users are often highly competent engineers who at the least can act as "competent clients" for designers, this is a problem. There are only two justifications for excluding participation. One: it's legally complex. Two: it's technically unsafe. Both these can be solved, by defining suitable legal frameworks and by breaking AMQP into small pieces that anyone can experiment at implementing.

Leverage competition

AMQP aims to get one authoritative design. This assumes that there are no commercial rivalries, but there clearly are. Rather than suppress these, we can use them constructively by allowing more than one answer to any given problem. If one team proposes a way of delivering messages, and another team thinks it can make a better way, it should be allowed to. Perhaps the two teams can agree, but if they don't we should allow two answers to sit on the table at once. This enables competition, so better designs can emerge. It also forces layers to be more orthogonal, and validates the overall architecture.

Leverage the market

AMQP is shielded from market opinion. If users prefer a particular API, for example, that does not feed back into the AMQP process. But it should: market opinion, especially with open source products, is a very valuable indicator of quality. When it comes to protocol designs, quality valuation by the market can be measured by the number of independent open source implementations, and the number of users of such implementations. Rather than try to make quality decisions up-front, it is simpler to use a green-brown model where experimentation allows multiple "green" specifications that are pruned over time to leave a small number, or one, brown specification.

Use the natural syntax

AMQP uses binary framing for control commands ("Queue.Declare") as well as message transfer ("Basic.Deliver"). This is not ideal. Each piece should use the natural syntax. Command protocols should use text, not binary framing. This is how every successful IETF command protocol works. Text framing makes backwards compatibility trivial. There are no performance issues with command protocols, so parsing is not an issue. Text framing is easy to understand, easy to implement. Message transfer protocols should use binary framing, and can be significantly simpler than AMQP's current framing: smaller envelopes, no verbs, no channels, no dynamic addressing.

Use natural semantics

AMQP currently mixes asynchronous and synchronous conversations in one protocol. It makes the combined protocol complex, and it makes error handling tricky. When we split control commands and message transfer into two separate protocols we can make each simple. Control commands work best with synchronous, pessimistic dialogues: each request gets a success/failure response. Message transfer works best with asynchronous, optimistic dialogues: messages are sent with no confirmation, and reliability is layered on top, as higher level protocols based on acknowledgements and retransmissions, transactions, and so on. Messages can be batched, commands should not.

Push blame to the edges

AMQP currently pushes problems upstream. Application private queues are held on the broker. Slow consumers cause these queues to back-up, and probably the biggest issue for production use is that servers run out of memory, and crash. Applying flow-control to publishers is the wrong solution. Messages should be pushed without pity to the edges, and if these are too slow, that should count as a defect in the edge application, and handled locally: drop old or new messages, or raise a fatal error. Problems at the edge should not be allowed to move upstream, period.

Deconstruct the broker

Currently, AMQP considers a broker to be a mainframe: big, important, central. This is certainly one use case but it is a very bad design for high data volumes: one big central bottleneck. It is wiser to treat the broker as a host for arbitrary queues and routers, and to accept that in many cases, such applications optimally reside at the edges, not a central point. For example, holding private queues centrally makes brokers fragile, while pushing private queues to the edges makes brokers more robust (by pushing blame to the edges). Similarly, routing can be done at the publisher edge. Only the Wolfpack pattern (one-to-one-of-many) absolutely remands a central broker.


The AMQP protocol and process are complex in ways that make it difficult to build a Version 1.0 and which in the long run may affect the success of the AMQP project itself. I've outlined ten principles that will in my view solve the complexity. Most of these proposals are years old and have been made many times to the AMQP working group.

Bookmark and Share

Rate this post:

rating: 0+x

Comments: 3

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License